İznik

Member of the Turkish National Network

Geographical Area

Iznik is on the eastern shore of the lake, which is named after itself, in the province of Bursa in the Marmara region of Turkey. Its population is 44690. In the historical period from the Roman Empire to the Ottoman Empire, it was an extremely important place in terms of religion, trade and administration. Iznik is almost an open-air museum and is listed as the Capital of Civilizations and the Golden City in various sources.

 

History

The establishment of beautiful Iznik, which is the subject of legends, with the death of Macedonian King Alexander the Great, Alexander's Phrygian satrap Antigonus IV. century (316) on the shores of Lake Askanya, the city that he named Antigoneia was built. When Lysimakhos, the old Thrace satrap, captured the city, the name of the city was changed to Nikaia, referring to his wife Nike. The city, which was connected to the Kingdom of Bithynia in 293 BC, was decorated with important architectural structures, gold coins were minted in its name and took the title "Golden City" in history. The Romans, who fought with the Bithynia Kingdom for many years, flowed the capital Nikaia, repaired the damage in the earthquake that occurred in 123 AD, and rebuilt the texture of the city. Thus, the city was surrounded by a 4970m long wall with 4 main and 12 secondary gates.

Nicaea is the place where the first ecumenical (universal) council of Christianity met. Iznik is the place where 228 bishops from all over the world attended in 325 AD and where the basic principles of the Christian religion were discussed and decided. It is known that Emperor Constantine I attended the first religious meeting of the Christian world and the council held in Iznik. The Council meets in the Senate Palace and discusses two important issues. One of them is Hz. The question is whether Jesus is the son of God. The thesis put forward by the clergyman Aryus, who attended the meeting from Alexandria, is that Jesus was only human and not the son of God, but this thesis was not accepted by the other bishops in the council. Thus, with the decision taken at the end of the meeting, the belief that Jesus is the son of God, which continues to be valid even today, becomes general. One of the issues discussed and decided at the meeting is the date of Easter. Then, in 787, the 7th council was convened, this time in the Hagia Sophia Church in Iznik. In this council, the anti-painting (Iconoclasm) view in Christianity at that time ends. Religious bans on paintings and sculptures are lifted. Since Iznik is the scene of such touchstone meetings for the Christian religion, it was declared the third holiest city in the world after Jerusalem and the Vatican by the Pope at the 19th council convened in the Vatican in 1962.

The city, which took the name of Iznik after the Turks took the administration, became the capital of the Seljuks and Byzantines. Iznik, which was captured by the Ottoman armies under the rule of Orhan Gazi in 1331, started to revive with the Ottoman period; It has been a center of art, trade and culture. Famous mystics such as Davud-u Kayseri, Ebul Fadıl Musa, Eşrefoğlu Abdullah Rumi lived in Iznik and left important works. The first mosque, madrasah and soup kitchen of the Ottoman period were built in Iznik. Iznik became an important art center in the XIV, XV and XVI centuries, and world-famous tiles and ceramics were produced here.

Iznik still preserves its historical urban texture with all its vitality, with its grid-planned city settlement from the Hellenistic era, monumental structures from the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods.

Cultural assets that must be visited in Iznik: Green Mosque, The Hagia Sophia Mosque, Abdulvahap Tomb, Archeology Museum, Turkish-Islamic Arts Museum, II. Murat Bath, Walls Surrounding Iznik, Tile Kilns, Roman Theatre, Çandarlı Tombs, Istanbul Gate, Lefke Gate, Yenişehir Gate, Göl Gate, Murat I Bathhouse, Hacı Özbek Mosque, Roman Theatre, Süleyman Paşa Madrasa, Underwater Basilica, Obelisk , Kyrgyz Tomb, Hisardere Necropolis, Sari Saltuk Tomb, Eşrefzade Tomb, Berber Rock Cemetery

 

Economy

In Iznik, on the plain where there are no heavy industry investments, many fruits and vegetables are grown mainly due to the favorable climate of olives, grapes, peaches, cherries, plums, pears, apples, walnuts, tomatoes, green beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and soil. There are 3 official fruit and vegetable markets in the region. Among the agricultural products produced in Iznik, olive takes the first place as a source of income for 90% of the farmer families. The welfare level of the people is above the Turkey average.

 

Main Events

Iznik Ultra, Iznik Super Enduro Championship, Iznik Equinox Festival, Blueberry Festival, Nectarine Harvest Festival, Oil Wrestling Festivals

 

Fairs and Markets

There is Iznik Tile Bazaar, where workshops producing Iznik tiles, which are one of the most important values of Iznik and have geographical indication, are located. Iznik Fair, which has been established on October 5 every year since 1935 and lasts for 5 days, has been selling many traditional and local products in our district. There are 2 bazaars in Iznik where local and regional products created by the villagers are available. These are the local products market and the fish market. These are the points where the fruits and vegetables grown and produced in Iznik, as well as the fish living in Lake Iznik, are traded.

 

Typical Products

  • Fruits: Olives, grapes, nectarines, peaches, kiwis, plums, apples, pears, quince, figs, walnuts, cherries
  • Vegetables: Tomatoes, beans, cabbage, zucchini, kidney beans, broccoli, lettuce, cauliflower, broad beans, peas, cucumbers
  • Fish: Scaly carp, mirror carp, burbot, rudd, lemur, levite, tench, catfish, thorn fish, silverfish

 

Traditional Recipes

As a result of the "Bursa Dishes" book study carried out in cooperation with the Bursa Governorship Provincial Culture and Tourism Directorate, 5 dishes specific to the Iznik region were included. This research was published as a book called “Bursa Foods”.

 

Other

Our district is on the UNESCO tentative list. The joint work of Iznik Site Presidency and Iznik Municipality for the UNESCO World Heritage List has come to an end. It also participated in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network with Bursa Iznik Tile.

PHOTOGALLERY